Andujar Archive

Estos ‘404: Not found’ son para enmarcar

El Museo Reina Sofía tiene hasta 13 versiones diferentes del error más famoso de Internet

¿Qué es el error 404? ¿De dónde viene? ¿A dónde va?

Corría el año 1992 e Internet estaba aún en pañales. Nada que el W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) no hubiera notado. La versión 0.9 del protocolo HTTP acababa de ser lanzada y entre sus especificaciones estaba la inclusión del 404: Not found. El error se produce “cuando el servidor no ha encontrando ninguna coincidencia con la URL solicitada”.

¿Y por qué 404? Según el Consorcio, el primer cuatro tiene que ver con un error del cliente: o no hay nada en la web que buscamos o la hemos introducido mal. El cero es un error sintáctico y el segundo cuatro es el código del error, uno más entre tantos. A saber, por ejemplo: el 403 significa que el acceso a un sitio web está prohibido, el 402 que es necesario pagar por entrar y el 409 que existe un conflicto entre el cliente y el servidor.  Pero el W3C lista muchos más códigos en su web.

Sin embargo, hay quien dice que todo partió de la oficina 404 del CERN en Ginebra (Suiza). Aunque fue allí donde Tim Berners-Lee y Robert Cailliau intercambiaron los primeros paquetes de datos (lo que a posteriori sería la World Wide Web), es una de esas leyendas urbanas de Internet de origen incierto y que señala directamente a la habitación 404 como la destinataria de todos los avisos de error cuando algo fallaba.

Quien más quien menos se ha encontrado alguna vez mientras navegaba por Internet con el famoso 404. Los usuarios lo saben y las webs también, por eso estas últimas, conscientes de que no poder acceder a la página deseada es un fastidio, “decoran” el error de diferentes maneras.

El jueves, @ferdiazgil publicó en Twitter una captura del error 404 que aparece en la web del Museo del Prado.  Es un detalle de  El descendimiento, una obra de Rogier van der Weyden.

A partir de ahí, hemos investigado otros museos de España (y del mundo) y hemos encontrado que en el Reina Sofía existen hasta 13 versiones diferentes del error. Todas son obra de Daniel G. Andújar y se enmarcan dentro de su trabajo Technologies To The People.

Pero el Prado y el Reina Sofía no son los únicos que le dan un toque original al 404: Not found. El MoMa de Nueva York utiliza una obra de Edward Ruscha titulada OOF, la National Gallery Art de Washington hace lo propio con El naufragio de Claude-Joseph Vernet; y en el British Museum se decantan por una brújula del siglo XVI.

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Opening of the first public venue and the Public Programs of documenta 14


September 14­–24, 2016 at Parko Eleftherias
Athens Municipality Arts Center

You are invited to be part of the Parliament of Bodies documenta 14 public program, hosted in the Athens Municipality Arts Center at Parko Eleftherias in September 2016. What will happen here during ten days of programming is neither a conference nor an exhibition.

We have avoided conventional museological names that establish distinctions between talk and performance, theory and action, criticism and art. Instead, we invited forty-five participants to “exercise freedom” within the building, which, not long ago, served as the headquarters of the military police during the dictatorship years. We understand freedom, with Foucault, as neither an individual property nor a natural right, but rather as a practice. We drift in history. There is a space. There are some bodies. There are some voices. But what does it mean to be together, here, now? What can be done? Who and what are made visible? Whose voices can be heard and which remain silent? How can the public sphere be reorganized?

In the Parliament of Bodies, you will find neither individual chairs within the building nor a fixed architecture. We avoid positioning the audience as aesthetic visitors or neoliberal consumers. We also reject the democratic fiction of the semicircular amphitheater. We claim—with Oskar Hansen—the political potential of the “open form.” Andreas Angelidakis’s soft architecture consisting of sixty-eight blocks of ruins (the ruins of a democratic parliament?) can be assembled and re-arranged in endless ways, creating multiple and transient architectures for the Parliament of Bodies. You are invited to actively construct this political theater every day, interrogating location, hierarchy, visibility, scale…

The 34 Exercises of Freedom aim to write a queer anticolonial symphony of Europe from the 1960s, scripting dialogue and giving visibility to dissident, heterogeneous, and minor narratives. We start by bringing together the radical left tradition with the anti-colonial fight for sovereignty of indigenous movements within Europe. The voice of Antonio Negri­­—one of the founders of the Potere Operaio (Workers’ Power) group in 1969 and member of Autonomia Operaia in Italy—meets the voice of Niillas Somby—the political rights activist fighting for Sámi sovereignty in the north of Norway. Both were accused of different forms of terrorism during the 1970s.

Sidestepping the established opposition of dictatorship and democracy, we try to understand the failures of transitioning to democracy within neoliberal regimes, not only in the case of Greece but also in Spain, Argentina, or Chile: how freedom was misunderstood as the free market. Whereas the 1980s are often portrayed as a time of decline for social emancipation movements, one that heralded the arrival of a new democratic consensus within capitalism—replacing ideological opposition with economic growth—anticolonial, feminist, queer, and anti-AIDS fights started to point out the cracks within western hegemonic discourse. Might it be possible to think the Greek notion of eleftheria (freedom) against the capitalist notion of freedom? Progressively during this ten-day dialogue we aim to introduce contemporary languages of resistance, from the Kurdish revolution in Rojava to the queer, transgender, sex-workers’, and migrant voices in Turkey, Greece, Mexico, or Brazil, from contemporary indigenous fights for restitution to new political and artistic practices dedicated to invent new forms of affect, knowledge, and political subjectivity, such as ecosex, queer-indigenism, and radical performativity. Together they draw a different political and poetic map of Europe than the one designed by the European Union.

Adespotes Skiles, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts), Andreas Angelidakis, Anna Apostolelli, Contemporary Social History Archives (ASKI), Hawzhin Azeez, Angela Brouskou, Rüzgâr Buşki, Clémentine Deliss, Linnea Dick, Maria F. Dolores, Theatro Domatiou, Bonita Ely, Panayotis Evangelidis, Daniel García Andújar, Macarena Gómez-Barris, Stathis Gourgouris, Irena Haiduk, Jack Halberstam, Candice Hopkins, Regina José Galindo, Chief Robert Joseph, Nelli Kampouri, Vangelis Karamanolakis, Kostis Karpozilos, Kostis Kornetis, Sevval Kılıç, Katerina Labrinou, Quinn Latimer, Prasini Lesvia, Ana Longoni, MiniMaximum ImproVision, Naeem Mohaiemen, Antonio Negri, Gizem Oruç, Neni Panourgía, Anna Papaeti, Jørgen Flindt Pedersen, Paul B. Preciado, Judith Revel, Tasos Sakellaropoulos, Georgia Sagri, Niillas Somby, Annie Sprinkle and Beth Stephens, Erik Stephensen, Adam Szymczyk, Diana Taylor, Prodromos Tsinikoris, Margarita Tsomou, Eirini Vakalopoulou, Ioanna Vogli, Tina Voreadi, Pantelis Voulgaris, and Sergio Zevallos



DEMOS is a space that materially and formally references two extremes of a spectrum that have been constitutive for the construction of Athens. On the one end of the spectrum are the ancient stone steps on the hill Pnyx, a modular typology and meeting place that can be said to have initiated the formation of democracy. On the other end you might find the modernist reinforced concrete frame, an architectural module used to democratize the way Athens was built. The steps on the Pnyx, along with most ancient Greek architecture, were borrowed by the world to form a global typology of spaces of authority such as parliaments, libraries, and courthouses. The reinforced concrete frame, which Greece borrowed from a modernized Europe, represents the anarchic, unauthorized construction that grew to define the Athens we witness today.

While the building inhabited by documenta 14 housed the military police headquarters during the reign of the junta, the building behind it was used as a detention and torture facility. Currently it houses the Museum of Anti-dictatorial and Democratic Resistance, which is operated by the Association of Imprisoned and Exiled Resistance Fighters (1967–1974). The building allocated to documenta 14 has been used in recent years as an art venue and public gallery run by the Municipality of Athens. The building is treated as a historical artifact: as the site where democracy reached its lowest point in contemporary Greek history. As the DEMOS modules, inhabited by the Parliament of Bodies, negotiate the parameters of the Public Programs, the building launches into an investigative renovation of its own history. The practical demands of the program, such as the sourcing of natural light and technical repairs to the building, become part of an archaeological process, as the layers of exhibition architecture are peeled away to uncover past identities of the space.

DEMOS creates a space as a programmable device with which to negotiate the relation between stage and audience, between performer and participant, between democracy and freedom. Each variation will be a demo for the Parliament of Bodies. Each demo will be “demolished” to make way for the next DEMOS. As the Public Program of d14 unfolds over time, the modules gradually form a language, each variation of the space a new definition of demos (Δήμος).

—Andreas Angelidakis



Program, September 14–24, 2016


Wednesday September 14 (7–11 pm)

Introduction by

Adam Szymczyk, artistic director, documenta14
Paul B. Preciado, curator of Public Programs, documenta 14
Andreas Angelidakis, architect/artist



#1. Chief Robert Joseph, hereditary chief of the Gwawaenuk First Nation, ambassador for Reconciliation Canada, and a member of the Assembly of First Nations Elders Council, and Linnea Dick, writer, painter, and ceremonialist of Kawakwaka’wakw, Nisga’a and Tsimshian heritage

#2. Antonio Negri, political theorist and philosopher

#3. Niillas Somby, Sámi political rights activist, journalist, videographer, and photographer

#4. Educación cívica / Civic Education

Sergio Zevallos, artist


Thursday September 15 (7–11 pm)



#5. Freedom as Market Value. Freedom as Practice of Resistance
Judith Revel, philosophy professor, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense and member of the scientific committee of the Centre Michel Foucault

#6. Memory under Construction: Towards a Public Memory of Torture in Greece
Kostis Kornetis, UC3M CONEX-Marie Curie Fellow at the Department of History, Carlos III University, Madrid

#7. Your Neighbor’s Son: The Making of a Torturer, Jørgen Flindt Pedersen and Erik Stephensen, Denmark, 1981, 52 min
Film screening

#8. Soundscapes of Detention: Music and Torture under the Junta (1967–74)
Anna Papaeti, independent researcher and musicologist

#9. Between Terror and Revelry. Collective Strategies of Resistance during Dictatorships in Argentina and Brazil
Ana Longoni, writer, curator, and professor of Art History, Universidad de Buenos Aires

#10. DJ set
Lies van Born, DJ


Friday September 16 (5:45–11 pm)


#11. Torture and Freedom Tour of Athens
(5:45–8:45 pm)
Collective walk through the city of Athens exploring the historical traces of oppression, violence, and the quest for freedom during the military dictatorship of 1967–74

Tour in Greek
Starting point: 5:45 pm at Polytechnion by the Tositsa Street entrance
Ending point: Parko Eleftherias
Τhe Greek tour is conducted by Vangelis Karamanolakis (historian, University of Athens) and Tasos Sakellaropoulos (historian, head of the Historical Archives, Benaki Museum, Athens)

Tour in English
Starting point: 6:15 pm at Polytechnion by the Tositsa Street entrance
Ending point: Parko Eleftherias
The English tour is conducted by Kostis Karpozilos (historian, director of the Contemporary Social History Archives–ASKI, Athens) and Katerina Labrinou (historian, Panteion University, Athens)

Meanwhile at the Athens Municipality Art Center, Parko Eleftherias:

#12. The Chronicle of the Dictatorship (1967–74), Pantelis Voulgaris, Greece, 37 min
Film screening

Εpitaph for Democracy
(9:30–11 pm)

#13. Epitafios II
Angela Brouskou – Theatro Domatiou, theater group and MiniMaximum ImproVision, improvisational group of musicians


Saturday September 17 (7 pm)–Sunday, September 18 (10 pm)



#14. Ojo de gusano: Don’t Look Down
Regina José Galindo, artist

#15. Chronotopes / Dystopic Geometries / Terrifying Geographies
Neni Panourgia, anthropologist, visiting associate professor of Anthropology at the New School for Social Research, New York

#16. Lingua Tertii Imperii
Daniel García Andújar, artist

#17. Red Star, Crescent Moon / after Sohail Daulatzai
Naeem Mohaiemen, artist

#18. This is not the Place. Four Visits to Villa Grimaldi: A Chilean Center for Torture and Detention 
Diana Taylor, professor of Performance Studies and Spanish at New York University

#19. Attempt. Come
Georgia Sagri, artist

Note: Visitors can bring along sleeping bags, comfortable clothes, food, and water and may stay in the space for the twenty-four-hour duration of the piece. Smoking is not permitted. A public discussion with Georgia Sagri will follow the completion of the performance on Sunday night.


Tuesday September 20 (7–11 pm)

South as a State of Mind #7 [documenta 14 #2]


#20. Transgressive Listening
Stathis Gourgouris, professor at the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society at Columbia University, New York

#21. Outlawed Social Life
Candice Hopkins, citizen of Carcross/Tagish First Nation, is an independent curator, writer, and curatorial advisor for documenta 14 based in Albuquerque, New Mexico

#22. I Owe You Everything
Clémentine Deliss, writer and curator, currently curating the Dilijan Art Initiative in Armenia. First act of giving in the series I Owe You Everything, in the presence of Chief Robert Joseph and Linnea Dick

I Owe You Everything is a project that chooses and follows a series of contemporary thinkers, poets, and activists who are invited to construct a public “act of giving,” a critical and poetic ritual, in which they give “everything” to the Parliament of Bodies of documenta 14. The acts of giving explore different cultural and political economies such as debt, gift, potlatch, revenge, retribution, promise…


Wednesday September 21 (5–7 pm)



#23. Interior Effects as an Outcome of War
Workshop with Bonita Ely, artist

You are invited to join artist Bonita Ely in a workshop to discuss the ongoing, inter-generational effects of undiagnosed, untreated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffered by family members of returned soldiers. During the workshop, Ely shares her family’s experiences following her father’s return home after the Second World War. The artist has made these often tragic effects of undiagnosed PTSD the focus of her artistic work. Open to up to 20 participants, register at:


Thursday September 22 (7–10 pm)


#24. They Glow in the Dark, Panayotis Evangelidis, Greece, 2013, 69 min,
Film screening and discussion with director Panayotis Evangelidis


Friday September 23 (7–11 pm)


#25. An Evening with Annie Sprinkle and Beth Stephens and Wet Dreams Water Ritual
Annie Sprinkle, activist, artist, and educator and Beth Stephens, ecosexual performance artist, filmmaker, activist, educator, founding director of the E.A.R.T.H. Lab and professor of Art, University of California, Santa Cruz. Together they authored the Ecosex Manifesto.

Note: Please bring some water from your home or town/city for the water ritual. Wear the colors of water; aqua, blue, and black. Be costumed, naked, painted, adorned, or as you like.

#26. The Waltz of the Dirty Streets
Adespotes Skiles, self-organized music and theater collective


Saturday September 24 (7–11 pm)


Organized in collaboration with AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)

#27. Decolonizing Memory: Vita Futurities in the Americas
Macarena Gómez-Barris, chair of the Department of Social Science and Cultural Studies at Pratt Institute, New York

#28. Rojava’s Feminist Revolution
Hawzhin Azeez, political theorist and activist, Kurd from south Kurdistan (northern Iraq)

#29. Trans*: Bodies and Power in the Age of Transgenderism
Jack Halberstam, visiting professor of English and Comparative Literature and Gender Studies at Columbia University, New York

#30. #Direnayol (#Resistayol), documentary by Rüzgâr Buşki, Turkey, 2016, 60 min
Film premiere

#31.Voices of Trans and Queer Politics in the Mediterranean with:
Rüzgâr Buşki, multimedia artist and producer, member of Kanka Productions
Gizem Oruç, musician, producer, and multimedia artist, member of Kanka Productions
Şevval Kılıç, sex worker, queer and trans activist working in Istanbul
Nelli Kampouri, gender scholar, Centre for Gender Studies, Panteion University Athens
Margarita Tsomou, author, publisher, dramaturge, and curator based in Berlin
Maria Mitsopoulou aka Maria F. Dolores, visual artist and performer, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)
Anna Apostolelli, activist, currently a member of Beaver, a women’s co-op café in Athens, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)
Tina Voreadi, visual artist and educator, AMOQA (Athens Museum of Queer Arts)

#32. Queer Indie Gig Exercise of FreedomHTH Green to Blue Shock Treatment
Prasini Lesvia, musician

#33. DJ set
Gizem Oruç, musician

#34. The Epic of Eleftheria
Irena Haiduk, artist and Eirini Vakalopoulou, writer and poet



General dramaturgy for the Exercises of Freedom: Prodromos Tsinikoris, artistic co-director of Experimental Stage -1 of the National Theatre, Athens.


Image: Athens Municipality Arts Center Parko Eleftherias
DEMOS, Andreas Angelidakis, installation, 2016, dimensions variable. Photo: Stathis Mamalakis



PUBLIC PROGRAMSPosted on 06.09.2016
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The Delicate Mix between Technology, Politics and Aesthetics

Interview with Daniel G. Andújar

Geert Lovink

April 26, 2016
interview 5.029 words

In April 2015 I had the honour to receive a private tour by the Spanish artist Daniel G. Andújar of his solo show, Operating System, at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Museum in Madrid.1 I know Daniel from the days of 1996–1997 when he was running Technologies To The People® (TTTP) (1996), a work shared in Operating System. All these months later, as the works in the show stayed with me, I decided to contact Daniel and request an e-mail interview with him. What I appreciate in his work is the natural way in which his ‘new media arts’ background is woven into the broader visual arts context of a large museum such as Reina Sofía. The show brought together the real thing and its virtual double – as if the two have never been at odds. Operating System offered a mix of many things, such as playful, a dark, hacker space installation, journalism investigating real estate projects (from the pre-2008 boom years), a colourful room filled with manipulated versions of political celebrity posters and an art historical investigation into Pablo Picasso. The exhibition seemed to find the ‘tactical’ equilibrium so many people have thrived on and thirsted for. When we have all moved on to become post-digital, where ‘analogue is the new digital,’ then why should we continue to marginalize those who experiment with the ‘new material’ in an evermore ironic fashion? It is time for the Great Synthesis. The historical compromise is there. Everyone prepares for the first post-digital Venice Biennale in 2017. Let’s enjoy the delicate mix between technology, politics and aesthetics in such a way that none of the three dominate, and let Andújar be our guide.

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Ocho exposiciones sobresalientes que disfrutamos en 2015

Nuestro crítico de arte J.M. Costa ha hecho una selección de las que considera las mejores exhibiciones de este año, todas reseñadas por él en


Daniel García Andújar: Dirigentes

Daniel García Andújar: Dirigentes

Daniel García Andújar en el Reina Sofía

El artista tecnopolítico Daniel García Andújar (Almoradí, 1966) inauguró en enero en el Museo Reina Sofía su exposición Sistema Operativo. El título de la muestra ya constituía un adelanto de lo que nos íbamos a encontrar: un entorno, una parábola del mundo en el que vivimos. 50 trabajos del artista almoradiense, que sin embargo no buscaban componer una retrospectiva, sino un trayecto por diversos aspectos de su obra. “García Andújar tiene la vocación del espacio público, físico y digital/comunicacional; del recibir y compartir; del cuestionar con una dosis de humor lo que se pretende incontestable”, describía J.M. Costa.

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Ist das noch Kunst oder schon verboten? – Spanische Künstler im Konflikt mit neuen Sicherheitsgesetze

Lange bevor in Europa im Zuge der jüngsten Attentate von Paris wieder eine Verschärfung der Sicherheitsgesetze diskutiert wird, hat Spanien bereits in diesem Sommer eine Gesetzesänderung durchgeführt: Zeitgleich mit einer Strafrechtsreform trat am 1. Juli das “Gesetz zum Schutz der Sicherheit der Bürger”in Kraft, das neue Strafbestände schafft und Bürgerrechte einschränkt. So gilt eine Demonstration vor dem Parlament als “Störung der öffentlichen Sicherheit” und ist mit Bußgeld belegt, Bilder von Polizisten dürfen nicht mehr “unbefugt” benutzt werden. Somit können Medien etwaigen Machtmissbrauch durch die Polizei nicht mehr so einfach dokumentieren.

“Knebelgesetze” führen zu juristischen Grauzonen

Auch bildende Künstler sind betroffen, wie etwa der Medienkünstler Daniel García Andújar, der in vielen seiner Arbeiten mit Bildern und Videos der diversen Protestbewegungen in Spanien arbeitet. Damit bewegt er sich jetzt in einer juristischen Grauzone. Er will sich von den “Knebelgesetzen”, wie die Spanier das neue Bürgerschutzgesetz und die Verschärfung des Strafrechts nennen, nicht beirren lassen – ebenso wie viele andere Künstler, Publizisten und Bürgerrechtler. “Das hat mit unserer Regierung und ihrer repressiven Politik zu tun”, sagt Andújar. “Die Leute sind die letzten Jahre viel auf die Straße gegangen. Es kam dabei zu Ausschreitungen, und lange Zeit trugen Polizisten keine Identifikationsnummer. Aber jeder hat ein Handy. Die Polizei-Bilder gingen also rum. Jetzt versucht man, diesen Informationsfluss zu stoppen.”

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El Museo Vostell de Malpartida de Cáceres acoge una exposición con más de 100 dibujos del artista Daniel G. Andújar


El Museo Vostell de Malpartida de Cáceres acoge desde este jueves día 3, hasta el 3 de abril de 2016, la exposición ‘Naturaleza vigilada’, una composición de más de 100 dibujos del artista Daniel G. Andújar.

La exposición pretende propiciar una reflexión crítica sobre el momento presente, un trabajo experimental sobre una sociedad “bajo cierto control y vigilancia”.

El director general de Bibliotecas, Museos y Patrimonio Cultural, Francisco Pérez; la jefa del Área de Cultura de la Diputación de Cáceres, Felicidad Rodríguez; el director del Museo Vostell, José Antonio Agúndez; la directora artística del museo, Mercedes Guardado; y el propio autor, Daniel G. Andújar, han presentado este lunes los detalles de la muestra.

En concreto, las imágenes de la exposición rememoran la primer visita que realizó Andújar al Museo Vostell, en 1987. Una caminata a pie desde Cáceres en la que se desplazó por caminos secundarios y preguntando a los vecinos cómo llegar al museo, lo que le supuso cierta “inseguridad” hasta llegar a su destino.

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Das Videospiel wird Realität, die Realität ein Videospiel

Der spanische Multimedia-Künstler und Aktivist Daniel G. Andújar untersucht die wechselseitige Wirkung von Realität und ihrer digitalen Repräsentation. Seine Ausstellung «Konfliktzonen» wird am Mittwoch im Haus der elektronischen Künste eröffnet. von Susanna Petrin

Was will dieser Künstler? Im Lärm von Gewehrsalven, in der Flut von Bildern, droht die Besucherin der Ausstellung «Konfliktzonen» den Sinn des Ganzen aus den Augen zu verlieren. Darum am Ende seiner Medienführung durch die von ihm gestalteten Räume im Haus der elektronischen Künste die Frage an Daniel G. Andújar: Was ist Ihre Absicht? «Es geht mir darum, einen Raum des Widerstandes zu schaffen», antwortet er, «mit Instrumenten gegen die Hierarchie und die zunehmende weltweite Standardisierung».

Praktisch seit es das Internet gibt, beobachtet Andújar, wie es zur Darstellung, Interpretation und Manipulation der Wirklichkeit genutzt wird. Und er greift selbst ein. Als Künstler: Er nutzt Bilder und Produkte aus dem Netz, indem er sie rezykliert, in neue Zusammenhänge bringt oder alternative Interpretationsmöglichkeiten anbietet. Als Aktivist: Vor bald 20 Jahren hat er etwa Websites kreiert, auf denen Bürgerinnen und Bürger sich über gesellschaftspolitische Probleme austauschen können (zum Beispiel, eine Seite, die jedoch für Uneingeweihte komplett undechiffrierbar ist).

Die Waffe aus dem Drucker

In Konfliktzonen manifestiert sich der Kampf um die Deutungshoheit von Bildern besonders. Auf dieses Thema fokussiert die erste Schweizer Einzelausstellung des in seiner Heimat Spanien schon sehr bekannten Künstlers. Sie versammelt Werke aus den Jahren 1998 bis 2015, die sich mit Kriegen, Konflikten und Protestbewegungen sowie deren Darstellungen auseinandersetzen.

Videoaufnahmen von Demonstrationen in Spanien zeigen, wie eine Kamera die Menge nach versteckten Polizisten in Zivil absucht. Ein doppelbödiges Spiel: Demonstranten dürfen fotografiert werden, doch getarnte Polizeiagenten nicht; ein spanisches Gesetz verbietet das. Dieser Film geht über in 3-D-Modelle der gefilmten Gesichter. Sie werden von Hand neu geformt – die Mimik oder Frisur werden variiert. So modelliere man heute die Figuren für Videospiele, erklärt Andújar und erwähnt, dass die Videospiel-Industrie den Umsatz so ziemlich der gesamten Kulturindustrie bei weitem übersteige. Besonders beliebt sind Kriegsspiele. Diese seien oft schneller und gewalttätiger als der reale Krieg. So, dass Soldaten, die sie spielten, ihre echten Einsätze als langsam empfänden.

«Das Virtuelle ist realer als die Realität», sagt Daniel G. Andújar. Und umgekehrt: Die Realität wirkt oft virtuell. Wer am Computer Drohnen steuert, wähnt sich in einem Spiel. Immer stärker durchdringen sich diese Welten, auch das macht der Künstler deutlich. Videogames werden genutzt, um die Spieler auf die je eigene politische Perspektive einzuschwören. Die Bestandteile für Einwegwaffen können im 3-D-Drucker ausgedruckt werden – Andújar stellt sie in einer Vitrine aus.

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Politisch, ironisch, digital: «Konflikt-Zonen» im HeK

16.9.2015, 16:01 Uhr

In seiner neuen Ausstellung hinterfragt der Künstler Daniel G. Andújar, wie digitale Information produziert, verbreitet und aufgenommen wird. «Konfliktzonen» ist eine der Ausstellungen, bei denen man am liebsten in den Kopf des Künstlers kriechen würde.


Daniel G. Andújar gibt gerne ausführliche, grundsätzliche Antworten auf Fragen zu seinen Kunstwerken. Nicht ganz ohne Grund. Ob es um die Gegenüberstellung von Videospielen mit Aufnahmen von Polizeigewalt geht oder um Handyaufnahmen von bunten Ecstasypillen, überall geht es nicht um ein Bild, sondern um viele, nicht um das Dargestellte, sondern um den Zusammenhang.

Das bemerkt man schon am Eingang des Ausstellungssaales im HeK, dessen gegenüberliegende Wände mit Ausdrucken tapeziert sind. Links Anleitungen zum Bombenbau aus dem «Anarchist Cookbook» von 1971, rechts Hacking-Tipps aus dem Internet. Subversion, Rohrbomben, Freedom of Information, eine wilde Mischung.

Aus Demonstranten werden Bösewichte

Gleich daneben eine Gegenüberstellung von blutigem Häuserkampf aus einem Videospiel mit einer realen Szene gefilmter Polizeigewalt. Dazu Gesichtserkennungsabläufe, zusammengeschnitten mit der Modellierung von Gesichtern für Games. Tatsächlich, erfährt man aus dem Begleittext, werden aus Bildern von Demonstranten die «Bad Guy»–Charaktere für Videospiele geschaffen.

Kann man das Manipulation nennen? «Videospiele sind ein Geschäftszweig, mit eigener Kuratierung, Musik, Architektur und Dramatik, die mehr Geld macht als ganz Hollywood», sagt Andújar dazu. «Mithilfe einer Bildsprache, die wahrscheinlich bald mehr Menschen erreichen wird als konventionelle Medien.»

Die Schemazeichnungen von Demonstranten in Hoodies an der gegenüberliegenden Wand zeigen aber keine Randalierer, sondern sogenannte Infiltrators: Polizisten in Zivil, die sich unter Demonstranten mischen. Verwirrend. 

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El guilloché (o guilloche) es una técnica decorativa en la cual un patrón de diseño repetitivo y complejo es grabado mecánicamente en un material con gran precisión y detalle. Comprende, en concreto, una serie de técnicas de torneado mecánico llamadas guilloché en francés, en referencia al ingeniero francés Guillot, quien inventó una máquina “que podía grabar patrones y diseños precisos en superficies metálicas”. Se aplica tanto en numismática como en billetes de banco.

En este nuevo trabajo de Daniel G. Andújar, que forma parte de su último ciclo de obras, titulado El capital. La mercancía, ya no hay apropiación de materiales gráficos preexistentes, pero sí de las técnicas utilizadas por las grandes empresas internacionales que desarrollan, producen y distribuyen productos y soluciones para el pago, la comunicación segura y la administración de identidades. Estas empresas surgieron hace más de ciento cincuenta años a partir de distintos gremios de artistas y artesanos.

Este proyecto utiliza el soporte de un “posible” billete como espacio apropiado para el dibujo (del retrato hasta el paisaje) y la acción. Según señala el propio artista: “Los primeros patrones que realicé tienen un gran parecido con los diseños producidos con el espirógrafo, aquel juguete para niños. El espirógrafo produce curvas matemáticas conocidas como hipotrocoides y epitrocoides. Sin embargo, a fin de preservar su seguridad, es decir, a fin de complicar su falsificación tal y como pasa con los billetes de banco, el proceso se va embrollando con sofisticados guillochés que utilizan complejas ecuaciones hipotrocoides y programas informáticos de cálculo gráfico que interpretan las ecuaciones. Los elementos se van también radicalizando a medida que las técnicas se suceden y solapan. La esteganografía, la suma de verificación, los efectos ópticamente variables, los táctiles, los interactivos y los ocultos, como la marca de agua digital, el hilo de seguridad, la impresión calcográfica, la microimpresión, la Constelación de EURión, los hologramas o las tintas de aspecto variable… Finalmente, los guillochés se tornan orgánicos, las matemáticas llaman al orden social, el hacker habla del cuerpo, lo mecánico es código, la seguridad cuestiona la realidad”.

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Zones of Conflict HeK (House of Electronic Arts Basel)

duration: 17.09.2015 – 15.11.2015

In his works, Spanish artist Daniel G. Andújar deals with political and social issues and reflects on the relationship between reality and its representation in digital worlds. He starts off with collections of various found media that he uses for his video and Internet projects, as well as arrangements of objects, prints and photographs.

Key themes are the power structures in dominant, hierarchical social systems and the role of technology as an instrument of state control. Andújar uses the representation strategies of media in an ironic and critical manner, asking whether information and communication technologies truly uphold their stated commitment to democratic and egalitarian values. He thus points out the discrepancy between the utopian idea of the Internet as a democratic space, and its actual capabilities and limitations. Andújar thus keeps returning to subversive tactics of occupation and civil disobedience – tactics that use social networks and the Internet to reframe the concept of freedom.

With “Konfliktzonen / Zones of Conflict“ the HeK (House of Electronic Arts Basel) presents the artist’s first solo exhibition in Switzerland. The exhibition includes works created between 1998 and 2015 on themes related to conflicts, protest movements and geo-political crises. All invite the visitor to take a critical look at today’s communication media and technologies.

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